Algeria History


Middle Paleolithic:
Aterian Civilization (sites of Bir el Ater, south of Annaba, and in the Nementcha at 70 km south of Tebessa, to the extremity of djebel Onk).

Ancient Neolithic:
Sites of snail shell mounds near Constantine and in the Sahara: Capsians were escargot eaters.

Recent Neolithic in Sahara (humid):
Brilliant Civilization (engravings and cave paintings of the Tassili n’Adjjer).

16th Century to 9th Century BC:
Probable descendants of the Capsians came into contact with ” people of the Sea ” and learned Aegean and Anatolian techniques: the Sahara became barren and empty.

Carthaginian Period, Kingdom of Numidia and Roman Period

About 1250 BC
Arrival of the Phoenician and foundation of the merchant colonies of Hippo-regius and Utica.

About-510 BC
Treaty between Rome and Carthage, Rome recognized the commercial monopoly of Carthage in the western Mediterranean

From 348 BC to 306 BC
Commercial Treaties between the Punics and Romans

From 264 BC to 146 BC
Punic wars (264 BC to 241 BC/ 218BC to 201 BC/ 149 BC to 146 BC)

3rd and 2nd century BC
Kingdoms of Numidia : Syphax, Massinissa and Jugurtha

From 111 BC to 105 BC
Jugurthine Wars between Jugurtha, king of the Numidians, and the Romans

46 BC
Numidia became a Roman province

From 1 AD to 429 AD
Romanization of North Africa

From 429 AD to 430 AD
Invasion of the Vandals

From 533 AD to 646 AD
Byzantine Conquests of North Africa

The advent of Islam

Arrival of the Arabs: Incursion of Oqba Ibn-Nafaa;

From 776 to 909
Rostomid dynasty

From 908 to 972
Fatimid Dynasty

From 972 to 1148
Zirid dynasty

From 1007 to 1152
Hammadit dynasty

From 1052 to 1147
Almoravid Dynasty

From 1121 to 1235
Almohad dynasty

From 1235 to 1556
Zianid dynasty

Ottoman Authority

To fight against the threat of Spanish occupation, Kheireddine Barberousse placed Algiers under protection of the ottoman Sultan of Istanbul.

Reign of the “Beylerbeys” (23 Beylerbeys took power )

Reign of the Pachas (about 40 pachas took power)

Reign of the “Aghas”(about 04 aghas took power)

Authority of the deys-pachas (11 deys took power) Algiers withstood English and French aggressions (1678,1680,1682,1688)

Authority of the Dey (18 deys took power, the latest was Dey Hocine)

French colonization

June 14, 1830
Disembarkation of French forces on the coast of Sidi Fredj.

July 5, 1830
Signature of the agreement of submission by the Dey of Algiers

Revolt of Emir Abd el-kader who made his authority recognized on the center and the west of Algeria as the Algerian State.

Resistance of Ahmed Bey in the East of Algeria

February 26, 1834
Desmichels Treaty concluded between France and Emir Abd El Kader

May 3, 1837
Treaty of Tafna concluded between General Bugeaud and Emir Abd El Kader

Revolt of Benacer Ben Chohra in the Center and the Southeast of Algeria

Revolt of the oasis of Zaatcha and Zibane conducted by Sheik Bouziane

Revolt of Cherif Boubeghla and Fatma N’soumer in Djurdjura and in Kabylia

Revolt of Ouled sidi-cheikh

Revolt of Hadj Mohamed El Mokrani Boumezrag and Cheikh El Haddad

Revolt of the Touareg in the Hoggar under the lead of Sheik Amoud Ben Mokhtar

Creation of the “Movement of the Algerian youth”,(in French :“Mouvement de la Jeunesse Algerienne) directed by the émir Khaled.
Creation in Algiers of “The association of the Muslim Students of North Africa”( in French: “L’Association des Etudiants Musulmans de l’Afrique du Nord”(A.E.M.A.N.)

March 1926
Creation in Paris of “ The North African star”,( in French: “l’Étoile Nord Africaine”) by El-hadj Ahmed Messali

Creation in Paris of “The association of the North African Muslim Students”,( in French “L’Association des Etudiants Musulmans Nord Africains -A.E.M.A.N.F)

May 5, 1931
Creation of “L’Association des Oulamas Musulmans” by Sheik Abdelhamid Ben Badis.

March 1937
Creation in Algiers of “the Party of the People of Algeria”,( in French: “ Le Parti du Peuple Algerian P.P.A) by El-hadj Ahmed Messali.

Ferhat Abbas presented to the allies in WW2 the “Manifesto of the Algerian people” requesting the equality between the Muslim and European communities.

May 8, 1945
Massacres of Sétif, Guelma and Kherrata, about 45.000 people killed.

Ferhat Abbas created “The Democratic Union of the Algerian Manifesto’) In French. “l’Union Democrate du Manifeste Algerien (U.D.M.A)
El-hadj Ahmed Messali created “the Movement for the Triumph of The Democratic Liberties”(in French: “ Le Mouvement pour le Triomphe des Libertés Démocratiques (M.T.L.D)

Creation of “the Special Organization”. (in French : “l’Organisation Spéciale)

November 1, 1954
Starting of the Algerian revolution.

September 1955
The Algerian question placed on the agenda of the U.N.

August 20, 1956
Congress of the Soummam and instauration of the “National Council of the Algerian Revolution “ ( In French : le Conseil national de la Révolution algérienne C.N.R.A.) and “the committee of coordination and application ” (In French: le Comité de coordination et d’exécution C. C. E)

September 19, 1958
Creation of the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic. “ in French: Le Gouvernement Provisoire de la Republique Algerienne (G.P.R.A.)” presided by Ferhat Abbas.

August 09, 1961
Ben youcef Ben khedda became the 3rd President of the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic.

March 18, 1962
Signature of the Evian agreements

March 19, 1962
Proclamation of the cease-fire.

April 1962
Installation of the Provisional Executive in “Rocher Noir” (Boumèrdes)

July 01, 1962
Referendum on self-determination, (99.7% in favor of independence).

July 05, 1962
Proclamation of the independence of Algeria.

Independent Algeria

September 20, 1962
Election of the first constituent assembly.

September 25, 1962
Proclamation of the People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria.

September 29, 1962
Constitution of the first government of Algeria.

October 08, 1962
Admission of Algeria to the U.N.

May 08, 1963
Adoption by referendum of the first constitution of Algeria

September 15, 1963
Election of Mr. Ahmed Ben Bella to the Presidency of the Republic.

April 1964
Adoption of the Charter of Algiers by the 3rd congress of the F. L. N. (National Liberation Front)

June 19, 1965
Creation of the Council of the Revolution presided by Mr. Houari Boumediene.

May 07, 1966
Nationalization of mines.

February 05, 1967
First local election (A.P.C (boroughs) and A.P.W. (Departments)

May 1967
French army left the bases of Reggane and Bechar.

February 1st, 1968
Withdrawal of the French army from the naval base of Mers El-kebir.

February 24, 1971
Nationalization of hydrocarbons.

June 27, 1976
Adoption by referendum of the National charter.

November 19, 1976
Adoption by referendum of the second constitution of Algeria.

December 10, 1976
Election of Mr. Houari Boumediene to the Presidency of the Republic.

December 27, 1978
Death of President Houari Boumediene .

February 07, 1979
Election of Mr. Chadli Ben Jedid to the Presidency of the Republic.

January 13, 1983
Reelection of Mr. Chadli Ben Jedid to the Presidency of the Republic (2nd mandate).

October 05, 1988
Protests in several cities of Algeria.

November 03, 1988
Adoption by referendum of the revision of the Constitution

December 22, 1988
Reelection of Mr. Chadli Ben Jedid to the Presidency of the Republic (3rd mandate).

February 23, 1989
Adoption by referendum of the fourth constitution of Algeria

June 05, 1991
Proclamation of the state of siege.

January 04, 1992
Dissolution of the People’s National Assembly (parlement).

January 12, 1992
Resignation of President Chadli Ben Djedid.

January 14, 1992
Creation of the Higher State Council (in French :Haut Conseil de l’Etat -H.C.E.) under the presidency of Mr. Mohamed Boudiaf.

February 02, 1992
Instauration of the state of emergency.

February 04, 1992
Creation of a National Consultative Council.

June 29, 1992
Assassination of the President of the Higher State Council, Mr. Mohamed Boudiaf.

July 02, 1992
Mr. Ali Kafi became President of the Higher state Council.

January 30, 1994
End of the mandate of the Higher State Council, Mr. Liamine Zeroual designated Head of State.

May 18, 1994
Creation of the National Council of Transition (in French: Conseil National de Transition).

November 16, 1995
Mr. Liamine Zeroual elected President of the Republic.

November 28, 1996
Referendum on the fifth Constitution of Algeria.

June 05, 1997
Pluralist legislative election.

October 23, 1997
Pluralist local Election.

September 11, 1998
Mr. Liamine Zeroual announced early presidential election.

April 15, 1999
Mr. Abdelaziz Bouteflika elected President of the Republic.

September 16, 1999
Adoption by referendum of the Law on the civil concord

April 10, 2002
Constitutionalization of Tamazight (Berber Language) as national language.

May 30, 2002
Second pluralist legislative election.

April 08, 2004
Mr. Abdelaziz Bouteflika reelected President of the Republic.

September 23, 2005
Adoption, by referendum, of the National Charter for Peace and Reconciliation

November 12, 2008
Revision of the Constitution of Algeria.

April 09, 2009
Mr. Abdelaziz Bouteflika reelected President of the Republic.

April 17, 2014
Mr. Abdelaziz Bouteflika reelected President of the Republic.